By A. G. Fishburn
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Pharmaceutical Formulation
It is largely (about 80 per cent) soluble in boiling water and the water-soluble extract contains a mixture of polysaccharides named carrageenin. O n hydrolysis, carrageenin yields simpler sugars, chiefly galactose. Chondrus is not suitable for extemporaneous dispensing b u t is used on the manufacturing scale as a thickener and emulsifying agent for preparations containing fixed oils or liquid paraffin. F. P. Gelatin is a protein obtained by partial hydrolysis of collagen which is extracted from the skin, connective tissue and bones of animals; it thus differs essentially in chemical composition from vegetable gums.
Solutions can be sterilized by autoclaving but there is a slight reduction in viscosity. Dilute solutions are liable to mould growth and require a preservative. The high viscosity grades of methylcellulose are used as bulk laxatives. F. ; they have not yet been used extensively in pharmacy in this country. C. C0 2 H instead of—CH 3 . It is made by treating cellulose with monochloracetic acid in presence of alkali and is available in several grades distinguished by the viscosity of a 1 per cent solution (6-4000 cP).
If neutrality is important, amine soaps such as triethanolamine stéarate are available; this will yield stable emulsions at pH 8. Soaps are used only for external application or for enemas. Their unpleasant taste, irritant action on the eye, and haemolytic properties make them unsuitable for other routes of administration. g. g. ). ). They are chemically incompatible with salts of many bases, due to precipitation of oleates and stéarates. X type. Historically, solubilization of natural oils by sulphation began about a hundred years ago, by treating vegetable oils with sulphuric acid.
An Introduction to Pharmaceutical Formulation by A. G. Fishburn